Republic of Zambia
Area: 752,614 sq. km. (290,585 sq. mi.);
slightly larger than Texas.
(pop. approx. 1 million).
Other cities: Kitwe, Ndola, Livingstone, Kabwe.
Terrain: Varies; mostly plateau savanna.
Climate: Generally dry and temperate.
Population (2006): Approx. 11.9 million.
Annual growth rate (2006): 1.6%.
Ethnic groups: More than 70 ethnic groups.
Religions: Christian, indigenous beliefs,
Languages: English (official), about 70 local
languages and dialects, including Bemba, Lozi,
Kaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Tonga, and Nyanja.
compulsory education; seven years
free education. Literacy--women: 60.6%; men:
mortality rate--102/1,000. Life
expectancy--37 years. HIV
Work force: Agriculture--75%; mining
and manufacturing--6%; services--19%.
Independence: October 24, 1964.
Constitution: 1991 (as amended in 1996).
(chief of state and head of government),
National Assembly. Judicial--Supreme
Court, high court, magistrate courts, and local
Ruling political party: Movement for Multi-party
Suffrage: Universal adult.
Subdivisions: Nine provinces subdivided into 72
GDP (2006, current prices): $10.9 billion.
Annual growth rate (2007, preliminary): 6.2%.
Per capita GDP (2006, current prices): $921.
Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, zinc, lead,
coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium,
hydroelectric power, fertile land.
sorghum, rice, groundnuts, sunflower seeds,
vegetables, horticultural products, tobacco,
cotton, sugarcane, livestock, coffee, and
transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages,
chemicals, and textiles.
Trade (2006): Exports--$3.54
billion: copper, cobalt, lead, and zinc, cut
vegetables, cotton, tobacco. Major
markets--South Africa, United Kingdom,
Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Japan. Imports--$2.7
billion: crude oil, refined petroleum products,
manufactured goods, machinery, transport
equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals. Major
suppliers--South Africa, China, Tanzania,
Major donors: Donors provided $1.1 billion in
development assistance to Zambia in 2005/6. The
World Bank is Zambia's largest multilateral
donor. Other key multilateral donors include the
International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European
Union, UN agencies, and the African Development
Bank. Counting direct bilateral assistance and
assistance through multilateral agencies, the
U.S. is Zambia's largest country donor.
Zambia's population comprises more than 70
Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups
are small, and only two have enough people to
constitute at least 10% of the population. Most
Zambians are subsistence farmers. The
predominant religion is a blend of traditional
beliefs and Christianity; Christianity is the
official national religion. Expatriates, a
majority of whom are British (about 15,000) and
South African, live mainly in Lusaka and in the
Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are
employed in mines and related activities. Zambia
also has a small but economically important
Asian population, most of whom are Indians. The
HIV/AIDS epidemic is ravaging Zambia. Almost 17%
of Zambians are infected by HIV. Over 800,000
Zambian children have lost one or both of their
parents due to HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy at
birth is 37 years.
The indigenous hunter-gatherer occupants of
Zambia began to be displaced or absorbed by more
advanced migrating tribes about 2,000 years ago.
The major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants
began in the 15th century, with the greatest
influx between the late 17th and early 19th
centuries. They came primarily from the Luba and
Lunda tribes of southern Democratic Republic of
Congo and northern Angola but were joined in the
19th century by Ngoni peoples from the south. By
the latter part of that century, the various
peoples of Zambia were largely established in
the areas they currently occupy.
Except for an occasional Portuguese explorer,
the area lay untouched by Europeans for
centuries. After the mid-19th century, it was
penetrated by Western explorers, missionaries,
and traders. David Livingstone, in 1855, was the
first European to see the magnificent waterfalls
on the Zambezi River. He named the falls after
Queen Victoria, and the Zambian town near the
falls is named after him.
In 1888, Cecil Rhodes, spearheading British
commercial and political interests in Central
Africa, obtained a mineral rights concession
from local chiefs. In the same year, Northern
and Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe,
respectively) were proclaimed a British sphere
of influence. Southern Rhodesia was annexed
formally and granted self-government in 1923,
and the administration of Northern Rhodesia was
transferred to the British colonial office in
1924 as a protectorate.
In 1953, both Rhodesias were joined with
Nyasaland (now Malawi) to form the Federation of
Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia was
the center of much of the turmoil and crisis
that characterized the federation in its last
years. At the core of the controversy were
insistent African demands for greater
participation in government and European fears
of losing political control.
A two-stage election held in October and
December 1962 resulted in an African majority in
the legislative council and an uneasy coalition
between the two African nationalist parties. The
council passed resolutions calling for Northern
Rhodesia's secession from the federation and
demanding full internal self-government under a
new constitution and a new national assembly
based on a broader, more democratic franchise.
On December 31, 1963, the federation was
dissolved, and Northern Rhodesia became the
Republic of Zambia on October 24, 1964.
At independence, despite its considerable
mineral wealth, Zambia faced major challenges.
Domestically, there were few trained and
educated Zambians capable of running the
government, and the economy was largely
dependent on foreign expertise. Abroad, three of
its neighbors--Southern Rhodesia and the
Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and
Angola--remained under white-dominated rule.
Rhodesia's white-ruled government unilaterally
declared independence in 1965. In addition,
Zambia shared a border with South
African-controlled South-West Africa (now
Namibia). Zambia's sympathies lay with forces
opposing colonial or white-dominated rule,
particularly in Southern Rhodesia. During the
next decade, it actively supported movements
such as the Union for the Total Liberation of
Angola (UNITA), the Zimbabwe African People's
Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress of
South Africa (ANC), and the South-West Africa
People's Organization (SWAPO).
Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing
of Zambia's borders with that country and severe
problems with international transport and power
supply. However, the Kariba hydroelectric
station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient
capacity to satisfy the country's requirements
for electricity. A railroad to the Tanzanian
port of Dar es Salaam, built with Chinese
assistance, reduced Zambian dependence on
railroad lines south to South Africa and west
through an increasingly troubled Angola.
By the late 1970s, Mozambique and Angola had
attained independence from Portugal. Zimbabwe
achieved independence in accordance with the
1979 Lancaster House agreement, but Zambia's
problems were not solved. Civil war in the
former Portuguese colonies generated refugees
and caused continuing transportation problems.
The Benguela Railroad, which extended west
through Angola, was essentially closed to
traffic from Zambia by the late 1970s. Zambia's
strong support for the ANC, which had its
external headquarters in Lusaka, created
security problems as South Africa raided ANC
targets in Zambia.
In the mid-1970s, the price of copper, Zambia's
principal export, suffered a severe decline
worldwide. Zambia turned to foreign and
international lenders for relief, but as copper
prices remained depressed, it became
increasingly difficult to service its growing
In response to growing popular demand, and after
lengthy, difficult negotiations between the
Kaunda government and opposition groups, Zambia
enacted a new constitution in 1991 and shortly
thereafter became a multi-party democracy.
Kaunda's successor, Frederick Chiluba, made
efforts to liberalize the economy and privatize
industry, but allegations of massive corruption
characterized the latter part of his
administration. By the mid-1990s, despite
limited debt relief, Zambia's per capita foreign
debt remained among the highest in the world.
Although poverty continues to be a significant
problem in Zambia, its economy has stabilized,
featuring single-digit inflation, real GDP
growth, decreasing interest rates, and
increasing levels of trade. Much of its growth
is due to foreign investment in Zambia's mining
sector and higher copper prices on the world
market. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt
relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
(HIPC) initiative, consisting of approximately
U.S. $6 billion in debt relief.
Zambia became a republic immediately upon
attaining independence in October 1964. The
constitution promulgated on August 25, 1973,
abrogated the original 1964 constitution. The
new constitution and the national elections that
followed in December 1973 were the final steps
in achieving what was called a "one-party
The 1973 constitution provided for a strong
president and a unicameral National Assembly.
National policy was formulated by the Central
Committee of the United National Independence
Party (UNIP), the sole legal party in Zambia.
The cabinet executed the central committee's
In accordance with the intention to formalize
UNIP supremacy in the new system, the
constitution stipulated that the sole candidate
in elections for the office of president was the
person selected to be the president of UNIP by
the party's general conference. The
second-ranking person in the Zambian hierarchy
was UNIP's secretary general.
In December 1990, at the end of a tumultuous
year that included riots in the capital and a
coup attempt, President Kenneth Kaunda signed
legislation ending UNIP's monopoly on power.
Zambia enacted a new constitution in August
1991, which enlarged the National Assembly from
136 members to a maximum of 158 members,
established an electoral commission, and allowed
for more than one presidential candidate who no
longer had to be a member of UNIP. The
constitution was amended again in 1996 to set
new limits on the presidency (including a
retroactive two-term limit, and a requirement
that both parents of a candidate be
Zambian-born). The National Assembly is
comprised of 150 directly elected members, up to
eight presidentially-appointed members, and a
speaker. Zambia is divided into nine provinces,
each administered by an appointed deputy
minister who essentially performs the duties of
The Supreme Court is the highest court and the
court of appeal; below it are the high court,
magistrate's court, and local courts.
Principal Government Officials
Acting President and Vice President--Rupiah
Banda (following August 19, 2008 death of
President Levy Mwanawasa)
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Kabinga Pande
Ambassador to the United States--Inonge
Ambassador to the United Nations--Lazarous
Zambia maintains an embassy in
the United States at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue,
NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel:
The major figure in Zambian politics from 1964
to 1991 was Kenneth Kaunda, who led the campaign
for independence and successfully bridged the
rivalries among the country's various regions
and ethnic groups. Kaunda tried to base
government on his philosophy of "humanism,"
which condemned human exploitation and stressed
cooperation among people, but not at the expense
of the individual.
Kaunda's political party--the United National
Independence Party (UNIP)--was founded in 1959
and was in power under Kaunda's leadership from
1964 to 1991. Before 1972, Zambia had three
significant political parties, but only UNIP had
a nationwide following.
In December 1972, Zambian law established a
one-party state, and all other political parties
were banned; this was later enshrined in the
1973 constitution. Kaunda, the sole candidate,
was elected President in the 1973 elections.
Elections also were held for the National
Assembly. Only UNIP members were permitted to
run, but these seats were sharply contested.
President Kaunda's mandate was renewed in
December 1978, October 1983, and October 1988 in
a "yes" or "no" vote on his candidacy.
Growing opposition to UNIP's monopoly on power
led to the rise in 1990 of the Movement for
Multiparty Democracy (MMD). The MMD assembled an
increasingly impressive group of important
Zambians, including prominent UNIP defectors and
labor leaders. Zambia's first multi-party
elections for parliament and the presidency
since the 1960s were held on October 31, 1991.
MMD candidate Frederick Chiluba resoundingly
carried the presidential election over Kenneth
Kaunda with 81% of the vote. To add to the MMD
landslide, in the parliamentary elections the
MMD won 125 of the 150 elected seats and UNIP
the remaining 25.
By the end of Chiluba's first term as President
(1996), the MMD's commitment to political reform
had faded in the face of re-election demands. A
number of prominent supporters founded opposing
parties. Relying on the MMD's overwhelming
majority in parliament, President Chiluba in May
1996 pushed through constitutional amendments
that eliminated former President Kaunda and
other prominent opposition leaders from the 1996
presidential elections. In the presidential and
parliamentary elections held in November 1996,
Chiluba was re-elected, and the MMD won 131 of
the 150 seats in the National Assembly. Kaunda's
UNIP party boycotted the parliamentary polls to
protest the exclusion of its leader from the
presidential race, alleging in addition that the
outcome of the election had been predetermined
due to a faulty voter registration exercise. As
President Chiluba began his second term in 1997,
the opposition and civil society challenged the
results of the election amid international
efforts to encourage the MMD and the opposition
to resolve their differences through dialogue.
Early in 2001, supporters of President Chiluba
mounted a campaign to amend the constitution to
enable Chiluba to seek a third term of office.
Civil society, opposition parties, and many
members of the ruling party exerted sufficient
pressure on Chiluba to force him to back away
from any attempt at a third term.
Presidential, parliamentary, and local
government elections were held on December 27,
2001. Eleven parties contested the elections.
The elections encountered numerous
administrative problems. Opposition parties
alleged that serious irregularities occurred.
Nevertheless, MMD presidential candidate Levy
Mwanawasa, having garnered a plurality of the
vote (29%), was declared the victor by a narrow
margin, and he was sworn into office on January
2, 2002. Opposition parties won a majority of
parliamentary seats in the December 2001
election, but subsequent by-elections gave the
ruling MMD a majority in parliament.
During his first months in office, President
Mwanawasa encouraged the Zambian Anticorruption
Commission to aggressively pursue its mandate.
In July 2002, in a speech before the Zambian
National Assembly, President Mwanawasa provided
details on a number of corruption allegations
targeting former President Chiluba, and called
for parliament to consider lifting Chiluba's
immunity from prosecution. Mwanawasa appointed a
special Task Force to investigate and prosecute
corrupt officials. Zambian courts are now
hearing cases involving corruption charges
against Chiluba and numerous officials from his
On May 4, 2007, a British court found former
President Frederick Chiluba and several others
liable in a civil suit for misappropriating $41
million of public resources. The criminal case,
which was frequently in recess due to Chiluba's
poor health, is expected to continue through
2008. The government's Task Force on Corruption
has also successfully prosecuted three other
cases of abuse of office and high-level
During his first term in office, President
Mwanawasa appointed an Electoral Reform
Technical Committee (ERTC) and a Constitutional
Reform Committee (CRC) to make recommendations
for reforms. The ERTC submitted its final report
to the President in August 2005. Voter
registration began on October 31, 2005 and
continued through December 31, 2005. The CRC
presented its final report and a draft
constitution in December 2005. In February 2006
the government agreed to allow the formation of
a Constituent Assembly to consider and adopt the
draft constitution, subject to certain
conditions. In August 2007, the Zambian
parliament passed a government-sponsored law
creating a National Constitutional Conference
(NCC) charged with drafting a new constitution.
The NCC, which is comprised of over 500 members
drawn from parliament, political parties, civil
society, and government, began meeting in late
December 2007. Some members of civil society
have refused to participate in the NCC, saying
that its membership is too heavily stacked in
the government's favor and pushing instead for
the promised Constituent Assembly.
The Government of Zambia introduced very limited
legislative changes to electoral procedures in
mid-2006, including an electoral code of conduct
and limits on politically-motivated donations
and handouts. On July 25, 2006, President
Mwanawasa dissolved parliament and his cabinet
and set September 28, 2006 as the date for
presidential, parliamentary, and local
government elections. Mwanawasa won the
September 2006 election with 1,177,846 votes,
while the Patriotic Front's Michael Sata came in
second with 804,748 votes. The head of a
three-party alliance, Hakainde Hichilema, placed
third. In parliamentary elections, the ruling
MMD party won a slim majority of seats.
International observers commended the overall
conduct of the elections, but noted some
President Mwanawasa died August 19, 2008 in a
Paris hospital from complications of a stroke
suffered June 29 while he was attending the
African Union (AU) Summit in Sharm-el-Sheikh,
Egypt. In accordance with the constitution, Vice
President Rupiah Banda assumed presidential
powers but must hold elections within 90 days
of Mwanawasa's death.
About two-thirds of Zambians live in poverty.
Per capita annual incomes are well below their
levels at independence and, at $921, place the
country among the world's poorest nations.
Social indicators continue to decline,
particularly in measurements of life expectancy
at birth (about 37 years) and maternal mortality
(729 per 100,000 pregnancies). The country's
rate of economic growth cannot support rapid
population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS
related issues (i.e., rising medical costs,
decline in worker productivity) place on
government resources. Zambia is also one of
Sub-Saharan Africa's most highly urbanized
countries. Over one-third of the country's 12
million people are concentrated in a few urban
zones strung along the major transportation
corridors, while rural areas are underpopulated.
Unemployment and underemployment are serious
HIV/AIDS is the nation's greatest challenge,
with 17% prevalence among the adult population.
HIV/AIDS will continue to ravage Zambian
economic, political, cultural, and social
development for the foreseeable future.
Once a middle-income country, Zambia began to
slide into poverty in the 1970s when copper
prices declined on world markets. The socialist
government made up for falling revenue by
increasing borrowing. After democratic
multi-party elections, the Chiluba government
(1991-2001) came to power in November 1991
committed to an economic reform program. The
government was successful in some areas, such as
privatization of most of the parastatals,
maintenance of positive real interest rates, the
elimination of exchange controls, and
endorsement of free market principles.
Corruption grew dramatically under the Chiluba
government. Zambia has yet to address
effectively issues such as reducing the size of
the public sector and improving Zambia's social
sector delivery systems.
For 30 years, copper production declined
steadily from a 1973 high of 700,000 metric tons
to a 2000 low of 226,192 metric tons. The
decline was the result of poor management of
state-owned mines and lack of investment. With
the privatization of the mines in April 2000,
the downward trend in production and exports was
reversed as a result of investments in plant
rehabilitation, expansion, increased
exploration, and high copper prices on the
international market. Copper production rose to
515,000 metric tons in 2006, and a similar level
was estimated for 2007.
Zambia experienced positive economic growth for
the ninth consecutive year in 2007 with a GDP of
U.S. $10.9 billion and a real growth rate of 6%
(according to preliminary IMF estimates). The
rate of inflation dropped from 30% in 2000 to a
single digit inflation of 8.9% by December 2007
due to fiscal and monetary discipline and the
growth of the domestic food supply.
In April 2005, the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and the World Bank's International
Development Association (IDA) provided Zambia
significant debt service relief and debt
forgiveness under the Heavily Indebted Poor
Countries (HIPC) initiative. Zambia was the 17th
country to reach the HIPC completion point and
has benefited from approximately U.S. $6 billion
in debt relief. In July 2005, the G-8 agreed on
a proposal to cancel 100% of outstanding debt of
eligible HIPC countries to the IMF, African
Development Fund, and IDA. Zambia is among the
beneficiaries of this additional multilateral
debt relief. Zambia also completed a Poverty
Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) arrangement
with the IMF in 2007, and the government has not
yet determined whether it will seek another PRGF
program or pursue a different arrangement with
the IMF, a Policy Support Instrument (PSI),
which would not involve additional lending.
The Zambian Government is pursuing an economic
diversification program to reduce the economy's
reliance on the copper industry. This initiative
seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's
rich resource base by promoting agriculture,
tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro power. The
government is also seeking to create an
environment that encourages entrepreneurship and
private-sector led growth. The 2008 budget
contained provisions for tax alleviation, as
well as increased allotments for healthcare,
education, and economic development.
The Zambian Defense Force (ZDF) consists of the
army, the air force, and Zambian National
Service (ZNS). The ZNS, while operating under
the Ministry of Defense, is responsible
primarily for public works projects. The ZDF is
designed primarily for internal defense. The
HIV/AIDS epidemic has hit the ZDF especially
The ZDF has contributed to African Union and
United Nations peacekeeping operations in
Africa, and in 2005 became a partner in the
African Contingency Operations and Training
Assistance (ACOTA) program. The first iteration
of ACOTA peacekeeper training took place in
Zambia is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM), the African Union, the Southern African
Development Community (SADC), and the Common
Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA),
which is headquartered in Lusaka.
President Kaunda was a persistent and visible
advocate of change in Southern Africa,
supporting liberation movements in Angola,
Mozambique, Namibia, Southern Rhodesia
(Zimbabwe), and South Africa. Many of these
liberation organizations were based in Zambia
during the 1970s and 1980s.
President Chiluba assumed a visible
international role in the mid- and late 1990s.
His government sponsored Angola peace talks that
led to the 1994 Lusaka Protocols. Zambia
provided troops to UN peacekeeping initiatives
in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Sierra Leone.
Zambia was the first African state to cooperate
with the International Tribunal investigation of
the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.
In 1998, Zambia took the lead in efforts to
establish a cease-fire in the Democratic
Republic of Congo. After the signing of a
cease-fire agreement in Lusaka in July and
August 1999, Zambia was active in supporting the
Congolese peace effort, although activity
diminished considerably after the Joint Military
Commission tasked with implementing the
ceasefire relocated to Kinshasa in September
During President Mwanawasa's administration,
Zambia contributed troops to support UN
peacekeeping operations in Sudan. In 2007, the
Zambian Government publicly appealed to other
African nations to contribute to a joint African
Union-United Nations (UNAMID) peacekeeping force
in Darfur. In August 2007, President Mwanawasa
assumed the SADC Chairmanship and affirmed his
commitment to launching a free trade agreement
Zambia's history of stability and its commitment
to regional peace has made it a haven for large
numbers of refugees. Currently, Zambia hosts
113,600 refugees (down from a high of 203,000 in
2002), including roughly 56,100 Congolese,
40,700 Angolans, and 16,800 other nationalities
(mainly Rwandans, Burundians, and Somalis). In
recent years, Zambia has made serious efforts to
repatriate many of these refugees, including an
estimated 108,000 Angolan and 7,500 Congolese
The United States and Zambia enjoy warm
relations. The United States works closely with
the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS
pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote
economic growth and development, and to effect
political reform needed to promote responsive
and responsible government. The United States is
also supporting the government's efforts to root
out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the
African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The
U.S. Government provides a variety of technical
assistance and other support that is managed by
the Department of State, U.S. Agency for
International Development, Millennium Challenge
Account (MCA) Threshold Program, Centers for
Disease Control, Department of Treasury,
Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The
majority of U.S. assistance is provided through
the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR),
in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.
In addition to supporting development projects,
the United States has provided considerable
emergency food aid during periods of drought and
flooding through the World Food Program (WFP)
and is a major contributor to refugee programs
in Zambia through the UN High Commission for
Refugees and other agencies.
U.S. Agency for International Development
In 2007, U.S. assistance to Zambia exceeded $259
million. USAID's program in Zambia included over
$116 million for HIV/AIDS programs utilizing
PEPFAR funding and $11 million to fight
corruption and increase trade under the MCA
Threshold Program. In addition to programs
funded through PEPFAR, the President's Malaria
Initiative, and the Millennium Challenge Account
Threshold Program, USAID's program in Zambia
supported training and technical assistance to
promote economic growth through trade and
investment; create health and educational
opportunities to improve lives; and reduce the
impact of HIV/AIDS through multi-sectoral
A country agreement inviting the Peace
work in Zambia was signed by the United States
and Zambia on September 14, 1993. The first
group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7,
1994. In 2007, the Peace Corps program in Zambia
continued to increase understanding between
Zambians and Americans. More than 160 two-year
Volunteers and as many as 10 extension and
Crisis Corps Volunteers promote sustainable
development through their activities in
agricultural and natural resource management,
health and sanitation, rural education, and
humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working
in eight of Zambia's nine provinces building
local capacity to manage family fish farms, to
promote food security and positive resource
management practices near forest reserves, to
implement health reforms at the village level,
to promote and support rural education, and to
extend HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts
through full participation in PEPFAR. Volunteers
live primarily in rural villages in remote parts
of the country without running water,
electricity, or other amenities. New trainees
undertake training in local language, culture,
and the relevant technical specialty for 9-12
weeks at a center in the Chongwe district of
Principal U.S. Officials
Deputy Chief of Mission--Michael Koplovsky
Public Affairs Officer--Christopher Wurst
Political/Economic Section Chief--Pam Tremont
Consular Officer--Malia Heroux
Defense Attaché--Lt. Col. David Dougherty
Centers for Disease Control and
USAID Mission Director--Melissa Williams
Peace Corps Director--Cynthia Threlkeld
Zambia is at the corner of Independence and
United Nations Avenues (P.O. Box 31617), Lusaka
(tel: 260-1- 250955; fax 260-1-252225).