Information on Countries from Around the World
Home
 Choose a place and go.......
Google
 
 
 Papua New Guinea
 
Papua New Guinea flag: divided diagonally from upper left corner. Upper triangle: red with a yellow bird of paradise; lower triangle: black with Southern Cross constellation-5 white, 5-pointed stars.

PROFILE

OFFICIAL NAME:
Independent State of Papua New Guinea

GeographyMap of Papua New Guinea
Land area: 462,860 sq. km.; about the size of California.
Cities: Capital--Port Moresby (254,158). Other cities--Lae (78,038), Mt. Hagen (27,789).
Terrain: Mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills. The largest portion of the population lives in fertile highlands valleys that were unknown to the outside world until the 1930s, but that supported agriculture some 10,000 years ago, possibly before agriculture was developed elsewhere. 
Climate: Tropical. NW monsoon, Dec.-Mar.; SE monsoon, May-Oct.

People
Population (2007 est.): 6.7 million.
Annual growth rate: 3.1%.
Languages: Three official languages are English, Tok Pisin, and Motu. There are approximately 860 other languages.
Education: Years compulsory--0. Literacy--49.3%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--65/1,000. Life expectancy--males 57.0 yrs.

Government
Type: Constitutional parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: September 16, 1975.
Branches: Executive--British monarch (chief of state), represented by governor general; prime minister (head of government). Legislative--unicameral parliament. Judicial--independent; highest is Supreme Court.
Administrative subdivisions: 19 provinces and the national capital district (Port Moresby).
Major political parties: National Alliance (NA), People's Progress Party (PPP), United Resources Party (URP), PNG Party (PNGP).
Suffrage: Universal over 18 years of age.

Economy (2006 est.)
Nominal GDP (2006): U.S. $5.6 billion; PGK 17.3 billion. 
Average exchange rate (2006): U.S. $=Kina 3.06.
Real GDP growth rate (2006): 3.7%. 
Inflation rate (2006): 2.9%.
Per capita GDP: U.S. $903. 
Natural resources: Gold, copper ore, crude oil, natural gas, timber, fish, oil palm, tea, rubber, logs.
Forestry (4% of GDP); marine (1% of GDP); minerals and oil (82% of GDP).
Agriculture (13% of GDP): Major products--coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm oil, timber, tea, vanilla. 
Industry (25% of GDP): Major sectors--copra crushing; palm oil processing; plywood production; wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; construction; tourism; crude oil production, refined petroleum production.
Trade: Exports--66% of GDP: gold, copper ore, oil, timber, palm oil, coffee. Major markets (in order by value--high to low)--Australia, Japan, Philippines, Germany, South Korea, China, United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, and Malaysia. Imports--31% of GDP: machinery and transport equipment, vehicles, manufactured goods, food, mineral fuels, chemicals. Major suppliers (in order by value--high to low)--Australia, United States, Singapore, Japan, China, New Zealand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, and United Kingdom.

PEOPLE
The indigenous population of Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Papua New Guinea has several thousand separate communities, most with only a few hundred people. Divided by language, customs, and tradition, some of these communities have engaged in low-scale tribal conflict with their neighbors for millennia. The advent of modern weapons and modern migration into urban areas has greatly magnified the impact of this lawlessness.

The isolation created by the mountainous terrain is so great that some groups, until recently, were unaware of the existence of neighboring groups only a few kilometers away. The diversity, reflected in a folk saying, "For each village, a different culture," is perhaps best shown in the local languages. Spoken mainly on the island of New Guinea--composed of Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of West Papua--some 800 of these languages have been identified; of these, only 350-450 are related. The remainder seem to be totally unrelated either to each other or to the other major groupings. Most native languages are spoken by a few hundred to a few thousand, although Enga, used in part of the highlands, is spoken by some 130,000 people. However, the Enga people are subdivided into clans that regularly conflict with each other. Many native languages are extremely complex grammatically.

Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca. English is spoken by educated people and in Milne Bay Province. The overall population density is low, although pockets of overpopulation exist. Papua New Guinea's Western Province averages one person per square kilometer (3 per sq. mi.). The Chimbu Province in the New Guinea highlands averages 20 persons per square kilometer (60 per sq. mi.) and has areas containing up to 200 people farming a square kilometer of land. The highlands are home to 40% of the population.

A considerable urban drift toward Port Moresby and other major centers has occurred in recent years. The trend toward urbanization accelerated in the 1990s, bringing in its wake squatter settlements, ethnic disputes, unemployment, public utilities pressure, and attendant social problems, especially violent crime.

Approximately 96% of the population is Christian. The churches with the largest number of members are the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church, the United Church, and the Seventh Day Adventist church. Although the major churches are under indigenous leadership, a large number of missionaries remain in the country. The bulk of the estimated 2,000 Americans resident in Papua New Guinea are missionaries and their families. The non-Christian portion of the indigenous population, as well as a portion of the nominal Christians, practices a wide variety of religions that are an integral part of traditional culture, mainly animism (spirit worship) and ancestor cults.

Foreign residents comprise about 1% of the population. More than half are Australian; others are from China, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, the Philippines, India, and the United States, most of whom are missionaries. Since independence, about 900 foreigners have become naturalized citizens.

Though cultures vary widely, traditional Papua New Guinea social structures generally include the following characteristics:

 

  • The practice of subsistence economy;
  • Recognition of bonds of kinship with obligations extending beyond the immediate family group;
  • Generally egalitarian relationships with an emphasis on acquired, rather than inherited, status; and
  • A strong attachment of the people to land, which is held communally. Traditional communities do not recognize a permanent transfer of ownership when land is sold.
  • Though land and other possessions may be inherited through the female line in some cultures, women generally are considered and treated as inferiors. Gender violence is endemic.
  • Patterns and frequency of sexual activity, though never publicly discussed (especially in rural areas), contribute to the current rapid spread of HIV.

Most Papua New Guineans still adhere strongly to this traditional social structure, which has its roots in village life.

HISTORY
Archeological evidence indicates that humans arrived on New Guinea at least 60,000 years ago, probably by sea from Southeast Asia during an Ice Age period when the sea was lower and distances between islands shorter. Although the first arrivals were hunters and gatherers, early evidence shows that people managed the forest environment to provide food. There also are indications of gardening having been practiced at the same time that agriculture was developing in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Early garden crops--many of which are indigenous--included sugarcane, Pacific bananas, yams, and taros, while sago and pandanus were two commonly exploited native forest crops. Today's staples--sweet potatoes and pigs--were later arrivals, but shellfish and fish have long been mainstays of coastal dwellers' diets.

When Europeans first arrived, inhabitants of New Guinea and nearby islands--while still relying on bone, wood, and stone tools--had a productive agricultural system. They traded along the coast, where products mainly were pottery, shell ornaments, and foodstuffs, and in the interior, where forest products were exchanged for shells and other sea products.

The first Europeans to sight New Guinea were probably the Portuguese and Spanish navigators sailing in the South Pacific in the early part of the 16th century. In 1526-27, Don Jorge de Meneses accidentally came upon the principal island and is credited with naming it "Papua," a Malay word for the frizzled quality of Melanesian hair. The term "New Guinea" was applied to the island in 1545 by a Spaniard, ═˝igo Ortiz de Retes, because of a fancied resemblance between the islands' inhabitants and those found on the African Guinea coast. Although European navigators visited the islands and explored their coastlines for the next 170 years, little was known of the inhabitants until the late 19th century.

New Guinea
With Europe's growing need for coconut oil, Godeffroy's of Hamburg, the largest trading firm in the Pacific, began trading for copra in the New Guinea Islands. In 1884, Germany formally took possession of the northeast quarter of the island and put its administration in the hands of a chartered company. In 1899, the German imperial government assumed direct control of the territory, thereafter known as German New Guinea. In 1914, Australian troops occupied German New Guinea, and it remained under Australian military control until 1921. The British Government, on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, assumed a mandate from the League of Nations for governing the Territory of New Guinea in 1920. That mandate was administered by the Australian Government until the Japanese invasion in December 1941 brought about its suspension. Following the surrender of the Japanese in 1945, civil administration of Papua as well as New Guinea was restored, and under the Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act, 1945-46, Papua and New Guinea were combined in an administrative union.

Papua
On November 6, 1884, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the southern coast of New Guinea (the area called Papua) and its adjacent islands. The protectorate, called British New Guinea, was annexed outright on September 4, 1888. The possession was placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1902. Following the passage of the Papua Act of 1905, British New Guinea became the Territory of Papua, and formal Australian administration began in 1906. Papua was administered under the Papua Act until the Japanese invaded the northern parts of the islands in 1941 and began to advance on Port Moresby and civil administration was suspended. During the war, Papua was governed by a military administration from Port Moresby, where Gen. Douglas MacArthur occasionally made his headquarters. As noted, it was later joined in an administrative union with New Guinea during 1945-46 following the surrender of Japan.

Postwar Developments
The Papua and New Guinea Act of 1949 formally approved the placing of New Guinea under the international trusteeship system and confirmed the administrative union of New Guinea and Papua under the title of "The Territory of Papua and New Guinea." The act provided for a Legislative Council (established in 1951), a judicial organization, a public service, and a system of local government. A House of Assembly replaced the Legislative Council in 1963, and the first House of Assembly opened on June 8, 1964. In 1972, the name of the territory was changed to Papua New Guinea.

Elections in 1972 resulted in the formation of a ministry headed by Chief Minister Michael Somare, who pledged to lead the country to self-government and then to independence. Papua New Guinea became self-governing in December 1973 and achieved independence on September 16, 1975. The 1977 national elections confirmed Michael Somare as Prime Minister at the head of a coalition led by the Pangu Party. However, his government lost a vote of no confidence in 1980 and was replaced by a new cabinet headed by Sir Julius Chan as Prime Minister. The 1982 elections increased Pangu's plurality, and parliament again chose Somare as Prime Minister. In November 1985, the Somare government lost a vote of no confidence, and the parliamentary majority elected Paias Wingti, at the head of a five-party coalition, as Prime Minister. A coalition, headed by Wingti, was victorious in very close elections in July 1987. In July 1988 a no-confidence vote toppled Wingti and brought to power Rabbie Namaliu, who a few weeks earlier had replaced Somare as leader of the Pangu Party. In 1992 Paias Wingti was elected Prime Minister. Sir Julius took his place in 1994 after a vote of no confidence. The 1997 elections brought Bill Skate to power as Prime Minister, but he was replaced by Sir Mekere Morauta after a vote of no confidence in 1999. Sir Michael Somare returned as Prime Minister after the 2002 general elections. He led his national alliance party into the 2007 elections and remained as the Prime Minister, becoming the longest-serving parliamentarian in the Commonwealth. Somare celebrated his 40th year in politics on March 16, 2008.

Such reversals of fortune and a revolving-door succession of prime ministers have characterized Papua New Guinea's national politics. From 1988 to 2002, the country had numerous prime ministers. A plethora of political parties, coalition governments, shifting party loyalties, and motions of no confidence in the leadership all lent an air of instability to political proceedings. For the first 27 years of independence, a "first past the post" electoral system resulted in many parliamentarians elected with less than 15% of their constituency. Fractious politics and a 75% loss rate for incumbents precluded the development of strong political parties or a stable national leadership. The limited preferential voting, introduced in 2003, and an organic law on political parties has strengthened political stability.

In the 2007 elections, 66 members of parliament lost their seats. The government was formed by a coalition of several parties, and Sir Michael Somare, the leader of the National Alliance (and the nation's first Prime Minister in 1975), was elected Prime Minister. His government was the first to complete a 5-year term since independence and hopes to complete a 10-year term.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Papua New Guinea, a constitutional parliamentary democracy, recognizes the Queen of England as head of state. She is represented by a Governor General who is elected by parliament and who performs mainly ceremonial functions. Papua New Guinea has three levels of government--national, provincial, and local. There is a 109-member unicameral parliament, whose members are elected every 5 years. The parliament in turn elects the prime minister, who appoints his cabinet from members of his party or coalition.

Members of parliament are elected from 19 provinces and the national capital district of Port Moresby. Parliament introduced reforms in June 1995 to change the provincial government system, with regional (at-large) members of parliament becoming provincial governors, while retaining their national seats in parliament.

Papua New Guinea's judiciary is independent of the government. It protects constitutional rights and interprets the laws. There are several levels, culminating in the Supreme Court.

Papua New Guinea's politics are highly competitive with most members elected on a personal and ethnic basis within their constituencies rather than as a result of party affiliation. Members of parliament are now elected in a limited preferential voting (LPV) system. There are several parties, but party allegiances are not strong. Winning independent candidates are usually courted in efforts to forge the majority needed to form a government, and allegiances are fluid. No single party has yet won enough seats to form a government in its own right.

Papua New Guinea has a history of changes in government coalitions and leadership from within parliament during the 5-year intervals between national elections. New governments are protected by law from votes of no confidence for the first 18 months of their incumbency, and no votes of no confidence may be moved in the 12 months preceding a national election. In an effort to create greater stability by reducing incessant votes of no confidence, the Integrity of Political Parties Act was passed in 1999, forbidding members of each party in parliament from shifting loyalty to another party.

In 2003, the electoral system was changed to limited preferential voting, which has begun to encourage politicians to strike alliances and to be responsive to constituent concerns once elected. The new system was used in the 2007 national general elections. However, 53 election petitions disputing returns were registered with the courts. Allegations included bribery, intimidation, block voting, and undue influence.

On Bougainville Island, a 10-year rebellion was halted by a truce in 1997 and a permanent cease-fire was signed in April 1998. A peace agreement between the Government and ex-combatants was signed in August 2001. Under the eyes of a regional peace-monitoring force and a UN observer mission, the government and provincial leaders established an interim administration and made significant progress toward complete surrender/destruction of weapons. A constitution was drafted in 2004 and provincial government elections were held in May 2005. The elections were deemed to be free and fair by international observers, and Joseph Kabui was elected to serve as the first president of the Autonomous Bougainville Government (ABG). Bougainvilleans also participated in Papua New Guinea national elections in 2007 to elect representatives to the national parliament. Kabui died of a heart attack in June 2008, and a by-election for the presidency will be held November 28-December 5, 2008. A referendum was tentatively agreed to be held between 2015 and 2020, 10 to 15 years following formation of the ABG. Progress has been slow with the ABG initially focusing on disarmament, peace, and reconciliation. A small percentage of former fighters have created illegal "no go zones," particularly in the Central and South Bougainville.

Principal Government Officials
Governor General--Sir Paulias Matane
Prime Minister--Sir Michael Somare 
Deputy Prime Minister--Puka Temu
Foreign Minister--Samuel Abal
Ambassador to the United Nations--Robert Aisi
Ambassador to the United States--Evan Paki

Papua New Guinea maintains an embassy at 1779 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-745-3680; fax 202-745-3679). The Papua New Guinea mission to the United Nations is at 801 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (tel. 212-682-6447).

ECONOMY
Papua New Guinea is rich in natural resources, including minerals, oil, gas, timber, and fish, and produces a variety of commercial agricultural products. The economy generally can be separated into subsistence and market sectors, although the distinction is blurred by smallholder cash cropping of coffee, cocoa, and copra. Approximately 75% of the country's population relies primarily on the subsistence economy. The minerals, timber, and fish sectors are dominated by foreign investors.

Manufacturing continued to be slow in 2007. The service industry was stable, while tourism shows potential and remains largely untapped. Generally, economic activity continued to grow in 2007. The growth was boosted by favorable international commodity prices. Employment grew modestly. The financial sector enjoyed high liquidity, with increased lending due to low interest rates. Inflation remained low.

Mineral and Oil Resources
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with gold, copper, oil, natural gas, and other minerals. In 2006 minerals and oil export receipts accounted for 82% of GDP. Government revenues and foreign exchange earnings depend heavily on mineral and oil exports. Indigenous landowners in areas affected by minerals projects also receive royalties from those operations. Copper and gold mines are currently in production at Porgera, Ok Tedi, Misima, and Lihir. A consortium led by Exxon/Mobil hopes to begin the commercialization of the country's estimated 22.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves through the construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facility by 2010. Interoil, an American-owned firm, opened Papua New Guinea's first oil refinery in 2004 and is exploring the feasibility of building a liquefied natural gas production facility by 2012 with production capacity of 32,500 barrels of product per day.

Agriculture, Timber, and Fish
Papua New Guinea also produces and exports valuable agricultural, timber, and marine products. Agriculture currently accounts for 13% of GDP and supports more than 75% of the population. Cash crops ranked by value are coffee, oil, cocoa, copra, tea, rubber, and sugar. About 40% of the country is covered with exploitable trees, but a domestic woodworking industry has been slow to develop. A number of Southeast Asian companies are active in the timber industry, but World Bank and other donors have withdrawn support from the sector over concern for unregulated deforestation and environmental damage. Recently enacted forestry legislation has exacerbated those concerns. Papua New Guinea has an active tuna industry, but much of the catch is made by boats of other nations fishing in Papua New Guinea waters under license. Papua New Guinea is a signatory to the South Pacific Tuna Treaty (SPTT), under which U.S. purse seiners fish for tuna in the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the Pacific Island parties. Locally produced fish exports are confined primarily to shrimp.

Industry
In general, the Papua New Guinea economy is highly dependent on imports for manufactured goods. Its industrial sector--exclusive of mining--accounts for only 9% of GDP and contributes little to exports. Small-scale industries produce beer, soap, concrete products, clothing, paper products, matches, ice cream, canned meat, fruit juices, furniture, plywood, and paint. The small domestic market, relatively high wages, and high transport costs are constraints to industrial development.

Trade and Investment
Australia, Singapore, and Japan are the principal exporters to Papua New Guinea. Petroleum and mining machinery and aircraft have been the strongest U.S. exports to Papua New Guinea.

Australia is Papua New Guinea's most important export market, followed by Japan and the European Union. The U.S. imports modest amounts of gold, copper ore, cocoa, coffee, and other agricultural products from Papua New Guinea. Most of those exports take place through third countries.

With the 2003 withdrawal of Chevron/Texaco, Australian companies are the most active in developing Papua New Guinea's mining and petroleum sectors. Exxon/Mobil retains a major share of natural gas reserves and is constructing a liquefied natural gas processing facility. Interoil, an American-owned firm backed by an Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) loan, operates an oil refinery in Port Moresby and is exploring the feasibility of building a liquefied natural gas processing facility. China is increasing its investment in Papua New Guinea, including development of the $1 billion Ramu nickel mine.

Papua New Guinea became a participating economy in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum in 1993. It joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1996. It is an observer at ASEAN and a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum. It has preferential tariff agreements with the markets of Melanesian and Pacific Island neighbors through the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) Trade Agreement and the Pacific Islands Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA).

Development Programs and Aid
Australia is by far the largest bilateral aid donor to Papua New Guinea, offering about $355 million a year in assistance. Budgetary support, which has been provided in decreasing amounts since independence, was phased out in 2000, with aid concentrated on project development. In 2004, Australia and Papua New Guinea embarked on the Enhanced Cooperation Program (ECP), under which Australia agreed to provide direct assistance, including 210 line police officers, to the Papua New Guinea constabulary. The ECP met with initial success, but was abruptly ended when Papua New Guinea's Supreme Court stripped Australian police officers of immunity in May 2005. Virtually all ECP personnel left Papua New Guinea following the court's decision. The governments of Papua New Guinea and Australia are now involved in protracted negotiations on a scaled-down version of the ECP.

Other major sources of aid to Papua New Guinea are Japan, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Volunteers from a number of countries and mission church workers also provide education, health, and development assistance throughout the country. Foreign assistance to Papua New Guinea is approximately $46 per capita. The U.S. funds a $1.5 million-per-year HIV/AIDS project in Papua New Guinea.

Current Economic Conditions
After years of decline and government deficit, Papua New Guinea was bolstered in recent years by a general rise in commodity prices and by government steps toward spending control. The economy continues to grow modestly and the government recorded a modest surplus in 2007. However, the economic improvements are based almost entirely on high commodity prices and the nation continues to have serious problems of corruption, a lack of law and order, land tenure concerns stifling investment, political interference in business, and a lack of political will to adopt needed sweeping reforms.

FOREIGN RELATIONS
Papua New Guinea's foreign policy reflects close ties with Australia and other traditional allies. Papua New Guinea is by far the largest Pacific Island nation and has traditionally viewed itself as part of the Pacific. However, in recent years it has also been cultivating relations with Asian nations. Its views on international political and economic issues are generally moderate. Papua New Guinea has diplomatic relations with 56 countries.

U.S.-PAPUA NEW GUINEA RELATIONS
The United States and Papua New Guinea established diplomatic relations upon the latter's independence on September 16, 1975. The two nations belong to a variety of regional organizations, including the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum; the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF); the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC); and the South Pacific Regional Environmental Program (SPREP).

One of the most successful cooperative multilateral efforts linking the U.S. and Papua New Guinea is the U.S.-Pacific Islands Multilateral Tuna Fisheries Treaty, under which the U.S. grants $18 million per year to Pacific Island parties and the latter provide access for U.S. fishing vessels. The United States has provided significant humanitarian assistance to Papua New Guinea and contributed to the rehabilitation of Bougainville. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds a $1.5 million-per-year HIV/AIDS project in Papua New Guinea and contributed $150,000 to Oro disaster relief efforts. The Pacific Partnership 2008 mission provided humanitarian assistance in Port Moresby and Oro Province. School and health clinic engineering projects were completed and over 25,000 people received medical care. An ongoing International Military Education and Training (IMET) program and HIV/AIDS training program exists.

The U.S. also supports Papua New Guinea's efforts to protect biodiversity. The U.S. Government supports the International Coral Reef Initiative aimed at protecting reefs in tropical nations such as Papua New Guinea. U.S. military forces, through Pacific Command (PACOM) in Honolulu, Hawaii, provide training to the Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF) and have held small-scale joint training exercises. The U.S. provides police and other education and training courses to national security officials. The U.S. also annually sponsors a handful of Papua New Guinea officials and private citizens to meet and confer with their professional counterparts and to experience the U.S. firsthand through the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) and workshops sponsored by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the Asia Pacific Secretariat (APEC).

The U.S. Peace Corps ceased operations in Papua New Guinea in 2001 due to security concerns. About 2,000 U.S. citizens live in Papua New Guinea, with major concentrations at the headquarters of New Tribes Mission and the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), both located in the Eastern Highlands Province.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--Leslie Rowe
Deputy Chief of Mission--Bruce Kleiner
Consular Officer--Ed Fajardo

The U.S. Embassy in Papua New Guinea is located on Douglas Street, Port Moresby (tel. 675-321-1455; fax 675-321-3423). The mailing address is 4240 Port Moresby Pl., U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-4240.

 
  Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Britain
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo (Republic)
Congo (DRC)
Costa Rica
Cote D'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Holland
Holy See
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Korea (North)
Korea (South)
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Morocco
Namibia
Mozambique
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
North Korea
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sri Lanka
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent  &  The Grenadines
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Tajikistan
Taiwan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

International Market Research Reports
Over 130 topics from more than 75 countries - Reports include market size information, market access strategies, market share, export and import information, market analysis, market trends, competition, domestic production, best sales prospects, statistical data, tariffs, regulations, distribution and business practices, end-user analysis, trade shows and contact points.
internationalbusinessstrategies.com

Culture Collective
Cultcollect.com is a collaborative online magazine and store. It is a place for creators to showcase and market their work, and for visitors to experience or buy new and original creations from around the world. Get to know different people, perspectives and places.
www.cultcollect.com

Weekend Group Travel DC
Activities, dinners, hiking, biking, ski trips, cocktails on the beach. Join us for weekend group trips around the Washington, DC area. Solo travelers and groups welcome!
www.weekendgrouptravel.com

 

 

 

 
 
Recommended Current International Market Research

Medical Consumables and Disposables in the UAE - December 2008
Hospital Construction Projects in Hong Kong - December 2008
Hospitality Training Services Market in Hong Kong - December 2008
Green Building Market in The UK - December 2008
Postsecondary Education Market In the Far East of Russia - December 2008
Wireless Telecommunications Market in Canada - December 2008
Agricultural Equipment Market in Canada - December 2008
Non-Ferrous Metals Market in Monterrey in Mexico - December 2008
Retail Channels in Korea - December 2008
Consumer Electronics Market in Australia - December 2008
Scientific Equipment in the Mining Industry in Australia - December 2008
IT Market in Hungary - December 2008
Oil and Gas Drilling Equipment in Colombia - December 2008
Agricultural Machinery in Ukraine - December 2008
Airport and Harbor Security in Australia - December 2008
Financial Sector in Spain - December 2008
Natural Cosmetics in Germany - December 2008
Telecommunications in Australia - December 2008
IT Security Technology For The Financial Industry In Hong Kong - December 2008
Selling to the Government in Hong Kong - December 2008
Waste Management in Hong Kong - December 2008
Healthcare Products and Services Market in Singapore - December 2008
Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry in Singapore - November 2008
Equipment Manufacturing in Chongqing in China - November 2008
Green Plastics and Plastics Market in Germany - November 2008
Construction Industry in Austria - November 2008
Renewable Energy Equipment Market in Thailand - November 2008
Agricultural Machinery in Slovakia - November 2008
MR-137 Funding in Security Research in the EU - November 2008
Pumps, Valves, and Compressors in Ecuador - November 2008
Energy Sector in Ecuador - November 2008
Textile Machinery In Mexico - November 2008
Air Cargo Transportation in Mexico - November 2008
Airport Security in Japan - November 2008
Broadband Market in Japan - November 2008
Fruit and Vegetable Packing Machinery in India - November 2008
Outbound Tourism to the US from Finland - November 2008
Medical Equipment Market in Finland - November 2008
Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Market In Finland - November 2008
Water and Wastewater Industry in Brazil - November 2008
Higher Education in Malaysia - November 2008
Sensor Industry in Korea - November 2008
Printing and Graphic Arts Equipment in Thailand - November 2008
Construction and Building Materials Market in Vietnam - November 2008
ICT Market in Vietnam - November 2008
Outbound Travel and Tourism to the US from Vietnam - November 2008
Outbound MICE Market to US from Japan - November 2008
Mining Industry in Peru - December 2008
Procurement Process in EU - December 2008
Renewable Energy in Switzerland - December 2008
Franchising in Colombia - December 2008
Food Processing Equipment in Argentina - December 2008
Medical Waste Treatment and Disposal Equipment in Canada - July 2008
Cosmetics, Skincare and Toiletry Products in Hong Kong - July 2008
Major Infrastructure Projects in Hong Kong - July 2008
Corporate Giftware and Consumer Goods in Argentina - July 2008
Major Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia - July 2008
Food Safety Testing Equipment in Thailand - July 2008
Cosmetics and Toiletries Market in Japan - July 2008
Automotive Parts Market in Germany - July 2008
Dental Industry in Singapore - July 2008
Automotive OEM Parts in Germany - July 2008
Authorization and Registration of Pharmaceuticals in the European Union - July 2008
Furniture Industry in Canada - July 2008
Cosmetics And Toiletries Market In Australia And New Zealand - July 2008
Renewable Energy Industry in India - August 2008
ICT Security in Italy - August 2008
Electrical Power Systems in Canada - August 2008
Tourism Projects in Slovakia - August 2008
Motorcycles and Scooters Market in Germany - August 2008
Defense Market in Hungary - August 2008
Higher Education Market in Vietnam - August 2008
Cellular Services in Indonesia - August 2008
Insurance Industry in Indonesia - August 2008
Medical Equipment and Supplies in Ecuador - August 2008
Apparel and Footwear Franchising in Poland - October 2008
Medical Device Market in the Czech Republic - October 2008
Study Abroad to the US from Venezuela - October 2008
Medical Equipment and Supplies in Thailand - October 2008
Cosmetics in Thailand - October 2008
Healthcare Market in Poland - October 2008
Defense Market in Poland - October 2008
Automotive Aftermarket Accessories and Specialty Equipment in Portugal - October 2008
Biodiesel Market in China - October 2008
Digital Media in Mexico - October 2008
Household Appliances Market in Germany - October 2008
Dental Industry in Taiwan - October 2008
Mining Industry in the Philippines - October 2008
Pharmaceutical Industry in the Philippines - October 2008
Automobiles Auto Parts and Accessories Industry in Slovakia - October 2008
Clinical Laboratory Equipment Market in Norway - October 2008
Book Publishing Market in China - October 2008
Wind Energy Market in China - October 2008
Internet Security Market in Switzerland - October 2008
Ski Market to the United States from Australia - October 2008
Motorcycles Market in Italy - October 2008
Automotive Tuning Market in Italy - October 2008
Geothermal Energy Market in Indonesia - October 2008
Generic Drugs Market in Japan - October 2008
Tancredo Neves International Airport - Industrial Airport Project in Brazil - November 2008
Floor Covering Industry in Germany - November 2008
Pleasure Boats Market in Germany - November 2008
Medical Equipment and Devices Market in Switzerland - November 2008
Energy Market in Greece - November 2008
Economic Overview of Minas Gerais in Brazil - November 2008
Agricultural Machinery and Equipment in Uruguay - November 2008
Franchising in Singapore - November 2008
Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Market in Argentina - November 2008
Green Building and Green Building Material Market in Taiwan - November 2008
Defense Procurement Market in Greece - November 2008
Medical Equipment Market in Italy - November 2008
Laboratory Analytical Instruments Market in Taiwan - November 2008
DIY (Do-It-Yourself) Hardware Products Market in Australia - November 2008
Cardio Equipment Market in Kazakhstan - November 2008
Airport Expansion Projects in the UK - November 2008
Medical Industry Market in Austria - November 2008
Green Building Technology in Japan - August 2008
Mining Equipment in Kazakhstan - August 2008
Biofuels in Indonesia - August 2008
Heavy Equipment Market in Indonesia - August 2008
Business Continuity Planning Industry in Japan - August 2008
Machine Tools in Japan - August 2008
Aquaculture Equipment Industry in Canada - August 2008
Cosmetics Market in the Philippines - August 2008
Agricultural Chemicals in Kazakhstan - August 2008
Overseas Study Market in Chongqing in China - August 2008
Water Supply And Wastewater Disposal in Germany - August 2008
Sending Samples from the US to Mexico - August 2008
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Market in Japan - August 2008
Education Market in the Czech Republic - August 2008
Healthcare Industry in Japan - August 2008
Internet and Online Services in China - August 2008
IT Security Products in Australia - August 2008
Clinical Laboratory Market in China - August 2008
Printing and Graphic Arts Industry in Mexico - August 2008
Book Publishing Market in Belgium - August 2008
Electronics Industry in the Czech Republic - August 2008
Automotive Industry in the Czech Republic - August 2008
Cosmetics and Toiletries in New Zealand - August 2008
Franchising in India - August 2008
Diagnostic Laboratory Test Products in Hong Kong - August 2008
Packaging Equipment, Materials and Containers in Argentina - August 2008
Franchising in Denmark - August 2008
Graduate Student Market in Canada - August 2008
Defense Market in the UK - August 2008
UAVs in the Defence Industry in Canada - August 2008
Business Aviation Industry in Japan - August 2008
Retail Loss Prevention Systems in Canada - August 2008
Regulatory Environment for Medical Devices in Taiwan - August 2008
Bookselling Industry in the UK - August 2008
Micro- and Nanomanufacturing Market in Germany - August 2008
Tourism Infrastructure Investment in Thailand - August 2008
Cosmetics and Toiletries Market in Singapore - August 2008
Furniture Industry in Brazil - August 2008
Automotive Framework Legislation in the EU - August 2008
Insurance Services in India - August 2008
Wind Energy in Germany - August 2008
Digital Broadcast Market In Turkey - August 2008
Electronics Industry in Thailand - August 2008
Conformity Assessments in Panama - August 2008
Toys and Games Industry in Canada - August 2008
Water Filtration Equipment Industry in Canada - August 2008
Caravans and Trailers in Australia - July 2008
Mine Safety Equipment in India - July 2008
Dental Industry in Germany - July 2008
E-Health Market in Germany - July 2008
Publishing Industry in Mexico - July 2008
Automotive Aftermarket Parts and Accessories and Service Equipment in Canada - July 2008
Oil and Gas Projects in Malaysia - July 2008
Transport Sector Public Private Partnerships General Legal Framework in Egypt - July 2008
Dental Industry in Korea - July 2008
Cosmetics Market in Indonesia - July 2008
Personal Care in China - July 2008
Broadband Market in Singapore - September 2008
Soil Remediation in Japan - September 2008
Business Aviation Industry in Mexico - September 2008
Education Services in Taiwan - September 2008
Specialty Food in Italy - September 2008
Pumps for Water and Wastewater Industry in Poland - September 2008
WiMAX in Taiwan - September 2008
Dental Supplies and Equipment in Mexico - September 2008
Water Supply and Treatment in Ukraine - September 2008
Commercial and Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Austria - September 2008
Renewable Energy and Microgeneration in Portugal - September 2008
Alternative Drives for Electric and Hybrid Technology Vehicles in Germany - September 2008
Water and Wastewater Industry in Hungary - September 2008
Energy Market in Italy - September 2008
Construction Market in Bulgaria - September 2008
Power Generation Equipment in India - September 2008
Construction Equipment in Panama - September 2008
Video Games Market in Hong Kong - September 2008
Packaging Machinery Market in Mexico - September 2008
Cosmetics Market in Kenya - September 2008
Aircraft and Parts in Austria - September 2008
Wireless Communications in Thailand - September 2008
Water and Wastewater in Malaysia - September 2008
Fast Moving Consumer Goods in Australia - September 2008
Poultry Farming in Australia - September 2008
Energy Efficiency and Green Buildings Market in Hong Kong - September 2008
Printing Machinery and Equipment in Poland - September 2008
Specialty Software Market in China - September 2008
Airport Surveillance And Security Equipment in India - September 2008
Plastics Industry in Morocco - September 2008
Healthcare Information Technology in Malaysia - September 2008
Automotive Aftermarket in Korea - September 2008
Water Supply and Distribution in Indonesia - September 2008
Men’s Wear Apparel in Japan - September 2008
Security Equipment and Services in Slovakia - September 2008
PDVSA’s Oil and Gas Projects in Venezuela - September 2008
Environmental Services Market in Mexico - September 2008
Food Processing and Packaging Equipment in Uruguay - September 2008
Outbound Tourism to the US from Taiwan - September 2008
Medical Equipment Market in Greece - September 2008
Broadband Market in Sweden - September 2008
Outbound Tourism to the US from Italy - September 2008
Veterinary Equipment Market in Uruguay - September 2008
Capital Markets in Uruguay - September 2008
Financial Services in Panama - September 2008
Pan-European Oil Pipeline Project Romania to Italy - October 2008
ICT Market in Italy - October 2008
IT Security Software in Germany - October 2008
Medical Devices in Germany - October 2008
Book Market in Taiwan - October 2008
Natural Health Products in Canada - October 2008
Building Insulation Products in Italy - October 2008
Industrial Chemical Industry in Monterrey in Mexico - October 2008
Medical Equipment Market in Hungary - October 2008
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) in Argentina - October 2008
Safety and Security Industry in Colombia - October 2008
Outbound Travel to the US from Mexico - October 2008
E-Government in Poland - October 2008
Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry in Germany - October 2008
Material Handling Machinery in Canada - October 2008
Agricultural Chemical Market in Chihuahua in Mexico - October 2008
Medical Biotechnology in Japan - October 2008
Nuclear Power Generation in South Africa - October 2008
Mining Equipment in Australia - October 2008
Dental Equipment in Jordan - October 2008
Manufacturing Software – CAD/CAM in India - October 2008
Agriculture, Fertilizer, Food and Grocery Retail in Egypt - October 2008
Aircraft and Parts in Australia - October 2008
 

Copyright ę1999- 2008  VirtualSources